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Muscular System: A Look at the Muscular System

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Objectives:

  • The students will lean how many muscles are in the human body.

  • The students will learn about the three types of muscle tissue: visceral (smooth), cardiac, and skeletal.

  • The students will be able to identify the name and location of major muscles in the body.

  • The students will be able to explain the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles.

  • The students will be able to describe the three main diseases of the muscular system: muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis.

Questions that encompasses the objective:

  • Have you ever pulled a muscle?

  • How did you do it?

  • What did it feel like?  

Prepare the Learner: Activating Prior Knowledge. 

How will students prior knowledge be activated?

Warm up by asking students:

  • What do you know about the muscular system?

  • How many muscles do you think we have in our body?

Common Core State Standards:

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1 B

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.4

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.2

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2 B

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.1

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.4

Materials and Free Resources to Download for this Lesson: 

Input:
What is the most important content in this lesson?
To reach this lesson’s objective, students need to understand:

  • The name and location of the major muscles in the body.

  • How many muscles are in the body.

  • The three types of muscle tissues.

  • The difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles.

How will the learning of this content be facilitated?

  • The class will begin with the teacher showing the YouTube clip “The Muscular System”  (source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLPlRJve70M)

  •  The video is about 7 minutes long and provides a detailed description of the muscular system including functions, structure, disease, and health. After the video is shown, a discussion should begin about what the students just learned. The teacher should ask the students their thoughts about the content.

  • The teacher should begin explaining the muscular system a little bit more in depth.

    • There are over 700 muscles in the body and are made up of the same elastic tissue.

    • Muscles are connected to our bones and our joints.

    • The muscular system has four main functions: movement of our body, movement of substances through the body, posture and body position, and generation of body heat. Without our muscles, we would not be able to move around. Muscles in our arms allow us to lift or throw a baseball. Muscles in our legs allow us to walk or run. Our muscles help push blood through our veins—it is important that we have blood flow throughout our body so that our organs work correctly. Muscles work together with out skeletal system to ensure that our body stands up straight. Our muscles contract to produce/ generate body heat.

    • There are three types of muscle tissues: visceral, cardiac, and skeletal. Visceral and cardiac are involuntary, while skeletal is voluntary.

    • **These will be explained more in-depth when the “Muscle Tissues” worksheet is presented**

    • Discuss the three muscular disorders mentioned in the video. Ask the students what they know about these disorders. Talk about what difficulties a person with one of these disorders faces everyday.

  • After the discussion, the teacher should hand out the “Muscles in Our Body” worksheet packet. The packet consists of three worksheets: “Major Muscles”, “Muscle Tissues”, and “Voluntary vs. Involuntary”.  If it is possible, project the each worksheet onto the board using a projector or put them into a PowerPoint document and project so that the teacher can point while they explain. The teacher should begin with the “Major Muscles” worksheet. As the teacher explains each muscle, the students should write the name in the box. From this activity, the students will learn about the major muscles of the body, the location of each muscle, and the function of each muscle.

    • Pectoral (Chest Muscle): connect the bones of the chest to the shoulder and upper arm.

    • Bicep (Muscle): located between the shoulder and the elbow; allows for arm movement.

    • Abdominal (Belly Muscle): located under the ribcage; support the trunk, allow for movement, and hold your organs in place.

    • Quadricep (Thigh Muscle): located in the front of the thighs; allow for running, walking, jumping, and squatting

    • Deltoid (Shoulder Muscle): located in shoulder; allows movement of the shoulder.

 

[Information Source: http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/muscles.html#]

  • The next worksheet that should be explained is the “Muscle Tissues”. As the teacher explains each muscle tissue, the students should fill in their chart.

  • Visceral Muscles:

  • Also called smooth muscles.

  • Found inside the stomach, intestines, blood vessels

  • These muscles are controlled by the unconscious part of the brain, therefore, making them involuntary

  • Cardiac Muscles:

  • Also called myocardium

  • Found in the heart; make up a majority of the heart’s mass

  • Pump blood throughout the body

  • These muscles are also involuntary

  • Skeletal Muscles:

  • Also called striated, due to the light and dark fibers that are seen in the muscle when viewing them under a microscope

  • Attached to the end of a bone

  • These are the muscles that we strengthen—the muscles that are seen on athletes and body-builders

  • These muscles are the only voluntary muscles in the body—we can control these muscles. If we want our arm to move, we make it move.

  • The last worksheet that should be explained is the “Voluntary vs. Involuntary” worksheet.

  • Involuntary:

  • Controlled by the unconscious part of our brain

  • Includes smooth and cardiac muscles

  • Where Can You Find Them? - gastrointestinal tract, bladder, heart, blood vessels, digestive system, respiratory tract, and the iris

  • Voluntary:

  • The only muscles we can control

  • Includes only the skeletal muscles

  • Where Can You Find Them? - connected to bones; legs, arms

  • Once the worksheets have been explained, the teacher should instruct the students to flip them over. On the board, the teacher should place a picture of the diagram of the human body. The teacher should show the students the muscle cards and explain that the students are going to play “Where’s the Muscle?” The teacher should show the students a card, read the name of the muscle, and ask the students where on the body the muscle belongs.

  • Once the activity is finished, the students will break into groups of three or four. Each student will be given a “What Muscles Are Being Used?” worksheet. On desks throughout the room will be cards. At each station, the students will read the card. Then, on their worksheet, they will write the action, the muscles involved, and if it was voluntary or involuntary.  Allow the students about 15 minutes to go around the room and read each card. Reconvene when 15 minutes is over and review the worksheet/ activity.

  • The final assessment will be for the students to answer the question:

Think about what you learned in class today. Why is the muscular system important? What do you think it would be like if we didn’t have a muscular system? How many muscles are there in the human body? How many types of muscle tissues are there? Can we control all of our muscles?

free lesson plan and resources for the nervous system

Time/Application
3-5 minutes
Guided Introduction

Review the class/ agenda with the students:

  • Introductory Activity (video)

  • Muscular System Discussion

  • Muscle Packet: Muscles in Our Body, Muscle Tissues, and Involuntary vs. Voluntary

  • Group Activity: “What Muscle Are They Using?”

  • Discussion of Group Activity

  • Independent Assessment

5 minutes

Introductory Activity:

20 Minutes

Muscular System Discussion | Muscle Tissues | Involuntary vs. Voluntary | “Guess the Muscle” Game

  • Expand on the video and discuss the muscular system more in depth.

  • Give each student the “Muscles in Our Body” worksheet packet.

  • Project the worksheets (as presented) onto the board either through a projector or PowerPoint presentation.

  • Play “Guess the Muscle” with the students.

15 Minutes

Group Activity: “What’s Muscle Are Being Used?”

  • Give each student a “What Muscle Are They Using?” worksheet.

  • Instruct the students to break into groups of three or four.

  • Set up scenario cards on desks around the room. Have the students circulate around the room, read the cards, and decide which muscle is being used.

  • At the end of 15 minutes, have the students return to their desks and discuss their observations.

Closure/Assessment
10 minutes

Independent Assessment:

  • The final assessment will be for the students to answer the question:

Think about what you learned in class today. Why is the muscular system important? What do you think it would be like if we didn’t have a muscular system? How many muscles are there in the human body? How many types of muscle tissues are there? Can we control all of our muscles?

  • Appropriate answers should include (but will vary):

Our muscular system has four main functions: movement of our body, movement of substances through the body, posture and body position, and generation of body heat. Without our muscles, we would not be able to move around. Muscles in our arms allow us to lift or throw a baseball. Muscles in our legs allow us to walk or run. Our muscles help push blood through our veins—it is important that we have blood flow throughout our body so that our organs work correctly. Muscles work together with out skeletal system to ensure that our body stands up straight. Our muscles contract to produce/ generate body heat. If we didn’t have a muscular system, we wouldn’t be able to walk, run, jump, or lift. There are about 700 types of muscles in the body and three types of muscles: visceral (smooth), cardiac, and skeletal. Visceral and cardiac muscles are involuntary and skeletal are voluntary.

  • If there is additional time, discuss any additional questions the students may have.


Individualized Instruction/Scaffolding

English Language Learners will be supported in this lesson through data-based heterogeneous grouping, verbal and written repetition of new vocabulary words, and multiple representation of vocabulary words through printed images and video.