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The Respiratory System: Breathe In, Breathe Out

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Objectives:

  • The students will be able to identify the features of the respiratory system.

  • The students will be able describe the function of each feature of the respiratory system.

  • The students will be able to explain the process of respiration (inhaling and exhaling).

  • The students will be able to explain external respiration and internal respiration.

  • The students will learn how smoking affects the lungs.

Questions that encompasses the objective:

  • Think about breathing. Why do you think we breath?

  • What benefits does breathing have on our body?

Prepare the Learner: Activating Prior Knowledge. 

How will students prior knowledge be activated?

Warm up by asking students:

  • What do you know about your lungs?

  • What do you know about the respiratory system?

Common Core State Standards:

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1 B

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.4

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.2

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2 B

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.1

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.4

Materials and Free Resources to Download for this Lesson: 

Input:
What is the most important content in this lesson?
To reach this lesson’s objective, students need to understand:

  • The organs of the respiratory system.

  • The function of each organ of the respiratory system.

  • The process of respiration.

  • The effects of smoking on the lungs.

How will the learning of this content be facilitated?

  • The class will begin with the teacher showing the video “Visualization of Airflow Through the Human Respiratory System” (source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyBLPaU057A) The video is only a minute long and shows how air travel through the nose, into the mouth, down the windpipe, and into the lungs. After the video is shown, the teacher should begin a discussion about the video and the students’ reactions to the video. The teacher should show the students the picture of the respiratory system. Begin a discussion about the lungs and respiratory system. This will provide some background before the diagram of the lungs is explained.

    • The lungs are one of the largest organs in the body and allow you to take in oxygen and breath out carbon dioxide.

    • The lungs are located in the chest and take up a large amount of space. The thoracic cavity (ribs) protects the lungs.

    • Underneath the lungs is the diaphragm. The diaphragm helps the lungs inhale (breath in) and exhale (breath out).

    • The lungs are not the same size; the left lung is slightly smaller because it needs to allow for room for the heart.

  • Next, the teacher should hand out the “Anatomy of the Human Lungs” worksheet. If it is possible, project the “Anatomy of the Human Lungs” worksheet onto the board using a projector or put into a PowerPoint document and project so that the teacher can point to the parts while they explain. As the teacher explains, the students will write the name of each part on the line. From this activity, the students will learn about the parts of the lungs and the function of each part.

  • The respiratory system is divided into two tracts: upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract. The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea. The lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial tree and lungs.

Parts of the Human Lungs

  • Larynx:  also called the voice box; helps with breathing, sound production, and protects the trachea.

  • Trachea (Windpipe): connects the pharynx (located behind your mouth) and larynx to the lungs.

  • Right Superior Lobe: located at the top of the right lung.

  • Left Superior Lobe: located at the top of the left lung.

  • Bronchial Tree: consists of the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

  • Bronchioles: the tiny tubes on the bronchi. There are about 30,000 in each lung

  • Alveoli: tiny air sacs at the end of each bronchiole. There are about 600 million in the lungs. The alveoli are covered with blood vessels called capillaries.

  • Bronchi: extension of the windpipe that brings air to and from the lungs.

  • Pleura: tissue that wraps around the lungs and coats the inner surface of the rib cage. Contains two layers and located between those layers is a fluid that allows the lungs to glide past each other while inhaling/ exhaling.

  • Right Middle Lobe: located in the middle of the right lung. Only the right lung has a middle lobe.

  • Right Inferior Lobe: located at the bottom of the right lung.

  • Left Inferior Lobe: located at the bottom of the left lung.

**It is important to note that the lobes of the lung are named for anatomical purposes and each lobe does not have a specific function.**

Information Source:

http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/lungs.html#

https://medlineplus.gov/pleuraldisorders.html

http://discoverykids.com/articles/your-respiratory-system/

  • Once the worksheet is explained, the teacher should begin a discussion about the respiration process. It is important to note that a single respiration consists of one inhalation and one exhalation. The teacher should hand out the “Respiration” worksheet. If it is possible, project the “Respiration” worksheet onto the board using a projector or put into a PowerPoint document and project so that the teacher can point while they explain. As the teacher explains, the students will write the name of each part on the line. From this activity, the students will learn about the process of respiration (inhaling and exhaling).

Inhalation

  • Take in air through the nose/ mouth.

  • Diaphragm contracts and pulls downward.

  • Thoracic cavity expands, produces a vacuum within the cavity.

  • Air is drawn into the lungs.

Exhalation:

  • Diaphragm relaxes and moves upward.

  • Thoracic cavity becomes narrow.

  • Air is forced out of the lungs.

 

External Respiration: bringing air into and out of the lungs, exchanging gases for air.

  • Air is inhaled through the alveoli.

  • Oxygen passes into the surrounding capillaries.

  • Carried by erythrocytes or red blood cells to the body cells.

  • Waste product, carbon dioxide, is transported to the airspaces of the lungs to be exhaled.

Internal Respiration: exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells, and tissues

  • Oxygen passes from the bloodstream into the cells.

  • Cells give off the waste product, carbon dioxide; it is passed into the bloodstream.

  • Blood transports the carbon dioxide into the lungs.

  • Carbon dioxide is expelled during exhalation.

 

Information Source: Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals by Ann Ehrlich and Carol L. Schroeder. © 2012.

  • After the explanation of respiration, the teacher should show the students the picture of the healthy lung vs. the unhealthy lung. The teacher should ask the students what they know about smoking and why smoking is bad for them. The teacher should explain what smoking does to the lungs:

  • Tobacco has been known to cause heart disease, lung disease, and cancer (especially lung cancer).

  • Chewing tobacco is just as bad as smoking it. This can lead to oral (mouth) cancer, cardiovascular disease, gum disease, and heart attacks.

  • Nicotine, the substance found in cigarettes, is highly addictive—meaning that once you start using nicotine, it is hard to end the craving for it. 

  • Smoking can lead to a breakdown in the lung tissue causing a disease called emphysema.

  • Smoking irritates the airways to the lungs, which can cause a chronic (persistent) cough.

  • Smoking can cause irritation in the nose and throat, as well as give you bad breath and stained (yellowed) teeth.

 

Information Source: http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/smoking.html#

  • After the discussion, the teacher should hand out the “Reasons Why Smoking is Bad” worksheet. The students should write three reasons why smoking is bad.

 

  • Next, the students will break into pairs. Each student will be given an “Our Lungs” crossword puzzle. The teacher should tell the students that for the first 10 minutes they will work without the use of their worksheets. For the remaining 5 minutes, they can use their worksheets. Reconvene when 15 minutes is over and review the worksheet/ activity.

  • Answers:

    • Across - (2) trachea; (4) pleura; (5) exhalation; (6) chest; (7) left; (9) smoking; (10) internal; (11) larynx; (12) inhalation

    • Down - (1) bronchioles; (3) cigarettes; (5) external; (8) thoracic; (13) alveoli

 

  • The final assessment will be for the students to answer the question:

Think about what you learned in class today about the respiratory system. Why is our respiratory system important? Why do we have lungs? What is so special about the size of the left lung? What is the difference between external and internal respiration?

free lesson plan and resources for the nervous system

Time/Application
3-5 minutes
Guided Introduction

Review the class/ agenda with the students:

  • Introductory Activity (video)

  • Introduction to the Respiratory System

  • “Anatomy of the Human Lungs” worksheet

  • “Respiration” worksheet

  • Group Activity: “Our Lungs” Crossword Puzzle

  • Discussion of Group Activity

  • Independent Assessment

10 minutes

Introductory Activity:

20 Minutes

Anatomy of the Human Lungs | Respiration

  • Give each student a “Anatomy of the Human Lungs” worksheet.

  • Project the worksheet onto the board either through a projector or PowerPoint presentation.

  • Explain the parts of the lungs.

  • Give each student a “Respiration” worksheet

  • Project the worksheet onto the board either through a projector or PowerPoint presentation.

  • Explain the process of respiration (inhaling and exhaling) and internal and external respiration.

15 Minutes

Group Activity: “Our Lungs” Crossword Puzzle

  • Give each student a “Our Lungs” crossword puzzle.

  • Instruct the students to break into pairs.

  • Tell the students that for the first 10 minutes they will work without the use of their worksheets. For the remaining 5 minutes, they can use their worksheets.

  • At the end of 15 minutes, have the students return to their desks and discuss the puzzle.

Closure/Assessment
10 minutes

Independent Assessment:

  • The final assessment will be for the students to answer the question:

Think about what you learned in class today about the respiratory system. Why is our respiratory system important? Why do we have lungs? What is so special about the size of the left lung? What is the difference between external and internal respiration?

  • Appropriate answers should include (but will vary):

Our respiratory system is important because it allows us to take in air and breath our carbon dioxide. Without our respiratory system, we would not be able to breath. Our lungs fill up with air and then exhale carbon dioxide. Our left lung, in relation to our right lung, is smaller. The reason it is smaller is because there needs to be room for the heart. External respiration is the process of bringing air into and out of the lungs, exchanging gases for air. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells, and tissues.

 

  • If there is additional time, discuss any additional questions the students may have.


Individualized Instruction/Scaffolding

English Language Learners will be supported in this lesson through data-based heterogeneous grouping, verbal and written repetition of new vocabulary words, and multiple representation of vocabulary words through printed images and video.