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The Skeletal System Lesson Plan: No More Skeletons in the Closet

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Objectives:

  • The students will learn how many bones are in the body.

  • The students will be able to identify the name and location of major bones in the body.

  • The students will be able to describe how our bones protect our body.

  • The students will be able to explain how bone growth occurs.

  • The students will be able to name ways to keep our bones safe and healthy.

Questions that encompasses the objective:

  • Have you ever broken a bone or do you know someone who has?

  • What was the experience like?

  • How was your bone repaired?

Prepare the Learner: Activating Prior Knowledge. 

How will students prior knowledge be activated?

Warm up by asking students:

  • What do you know about the skeletal system?

  • How many bones do you think we have in our body?

Common Core State Standards:

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1 B

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.4

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.2

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2 B

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.1

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.4

Materials and Free Resources to Download for this Lesson: 

Input:
What is the most important content in this lesson?
To reach this lesson’s objective, students need to understand:

  • The name and location of the major bones in the body.

  • How many bones are in the body.

  • The importance of the skeletal system and its role in protecting the body.

  • How bones grow.

  • The ways we can keep our bones safe and healthy.

How will the learning of this content be facilitated?

  • The class will begin with the teacher showing the YouTube clip “What If We Didn’t Have Bones—What Would Happen?”  (source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hyqlKVm2ks) The video is about 4 minutes long. After the video is shown, a discussion should begin about what the students just learned. The teacher should ask the students their thoughts about the content.

  • The teacher should begin explaining the skeletal system more in depth to the students. Show the students the picture of the skeleton or model skeleton.

    • The skeletal system is a very important component of our body. The skeletal system:

      • Provides protection for our internal organs

      • Give us a framework for our body

      • Allows us to move around (with the help of our joints).

    • The skeletal system consists of 206 bones, which are constantly changing. When a baby is born, their skeletal system contains 300 bones. But as they grow, some bones begin to fuse/ grow together. Many bones in a child’s body are made of cartilage. As the child grows, with the help of calcium, the cartilage begins to turn into bone. By the time you are 25 years old, bone growth stops and the size your bones are is what they are going to be.

    • Without our skeletal system, we would not be able to stand upright, walk, move our arms, or turn our heads. All of the bones work together to make movement possible.

    • Our skeletal system also helps to protect our internal organs from harm. For example, your ribs protect your heart, lungs, and liver; your skull protects your brain.

 

Information Source: https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/bones.html#

  • After the discussion, the teacher should hand out the “Bones in Our Body” worksheet. If it is possible, project the “Bones in Our Body” worksheet onto the board using a projector or put into a PowerPoint document and project so that the teacher can point to each bone while they explain. As the teacher explains each bone, the students should write the name in the box. From this activity, the students will learn about the major bones of the body, the location of each bone, and the function of each bone.

Bones and their Functions:

  • Cranium: the skull; encloses/ protects the brain.

  • Clavicle: also called the collarbone; allows your arms to hang freely.

  • Ribs: act as a protective cage for the heart, lungs, and liver; there are 12 pairs of ribs.

  • Radius: lateral, shorter bone of the forearm.

  • Ulna: inner, larger bone of the forearm.

  • Metacarpals: the five bones of the metacarpus, located between the wrist and the fingers.

  • Femur: the thighbone; the longest and strongest bone in the body.

  • Tibia: the inner, larger bone of the lower leg.

  • Tarsals: the seven bones of the ankle joint.

  • Scapula: also called the shoulder blade; provides a foundation for joint function.

  • Mandible: the jawbone; holds the lower teeth in place; it is the strongest bone in the face.

  • Stapes: located in the middle ear; the smallest bone in the body.

  • Humerus: upper arm bone; supports arm functions, such as lifting.

  • Vertebrae: any of the 33 bones of the spinal column.

  • Pelvis: located near the base of the spine where the hind limbs/legs are attached; this bone is separated in children and fused together in adults.

  • Carpals: any of the 8 bones of the carpus/ wrist.

  • Phalanges: any of the bones of the fingers.

  • Patella: the kneecap; allows for knee extension.

  • Fibula: the outer, smaller bone located between the knee and the ankle.

  • Metatarsals: any of the bones located between the ankle and the toes.

 

Information Source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

  • Once the bones are explained, the teacher will instruct the students to stand up. Tell the students that they will be playing a game, similar to “Simon Says”, where they will be touching the different bones of their body. Play the game for about 5-10 minutes, incorporating most or all of the bones that were just taught. Begin the game by saying: “[insert your name- Mr./Ms./Mrs….] says, touch your patella.”

**This provides the students with some time to stand and move around before resuming the final discussion of the lesson**

  • After the game, the teacher should begin a discussion about ways to keep bones healthy and safe. The teacher should hand out the “Take Care of Your Bones!” worksheet. If it is possible, project the “Take Care of Your Bones!” worksheet onto the board using a projector or put into a PowerPoint document and project. The teacher should begin a discussion about ways to keep the bones safe and healthy. The students should write the four ways to keep bones healthy on their worksheet

  • Always wear a helmet, kneepads, and elbow pads when roller blading, skateboarding, riding a bicycle, or riding a scooter.

  • If you play sports like football, soccer, or hockey, always listen to your coach and wear the proper safety gear.

  • Eat foods that contain calcium. These foods include milk, cheese, and yogurt.

  • Exercise often—playing outside, riding your bicycle, jumping, and dancing all help strengthen your bones.

 

Information Source: https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/bones.html#

  • Once the discussion on how to keep bones safe and healthy is finished, the students will break into groups of three or four. Each student will be given a “What’s Wrong With Mr. Bones?” worksheet. On desks throughout the room will be “Poor Mr. Bones!” cards. On each card will be a description of something that Mr. Bones did that caused him to get hurt. The students will read each card and identify which bone Mr. Bones injured. Allow the students about 15 minutes to go around the room and read each card. Reconvene when 15 minutes is over and review the worksheet/ activity.

 

  • The final assessment will be for the students to answer the question:

Think about what you learned in class today about the skeletal system. Why is our skeleton important? What are the benefits of having a skeleton? When we are born, how many bones do we have? Do we still have the same amount of bones when we reach adulthood? If not, what happens to those bones? What are some ways we can keep our bones safe and healthy?

free lesson plan and resources for the nervous system

Time/Application
3-5 minutes
Guided Introduction

Review the class/ agenda with the students:

  • Introductory Activity (video)

  • Skeletal System Discussion

  • Skeleton Diagram

  • Game: “Simon Says”

  • Taking Care of Our Bones Discussion

  • Group Activity: “What’s Wrong With Mr. Bones?”

  • Discussion of Group Activity

  • Independent Assessment

5 minutes

Introductory Activity:

25 Minutes

Skeletal System Discussion | Bones in Our Body | Simon Says | Taking Care of Our Bones

  • Expand on the video and discuss the skeletal system more in depth.

  • Give each student the “Bones in Our Body” worksheet.

  • Project the diagram onto the board either through a projector or PowerPoint presentation.

  • Tell the students that as each part is explained, they should write the name of the part in the box.

  • Play “Simon Says” with the students; using the names of the bones they just learned.

  • Begin a discussion about keeping bones safe and healthy.

15 Minutes

Group Activity: “What’s Wrong with Mr. Bones?”

  • Give each student a “What’s Wrong with Mr. Bones?” worksheet.

  • Instruct the students to break into groups of three or four.

  • Set up the “Poor Mr. Bones!” cards on desks around the room. Have the students circulate around the room, read the cards, and decide which bone Mr. Bones injured.

  • At the end of 15 minutes, have the students return to their desks and discuss their observations.

Closure/Assessment
10 minutes

Independent Assessment:

  • The final assessment will be for the students to answer the question:

Think about what you learned in class today about the skeletal system. Why is our skeleton important? What are the benefits of having a skeleton? When we are born, how many bones do we have? Do we still have the same amount of bones when we reach adulthood? If not, what happens to those bones? What are some ways we can keep our bones safe and healthy?

  • Appropriate answers should include (but will vary):

Our skeleton is important because it is the framework of our body. Our skeleton helps us to stand upright and move our arms and legs. Our skeleton also helps to protect our internal organs, such as our heart, lungs, and brain. Without our skeletal system we would be like a lump of jelly. When we are born, we have 300 bones, but our bones fuse together as we grow. By the time we are adults we have 206 bones. We can keep our bones healthy and safe by eating foods that contain calcium, exercising, and wearing protective gear when riding out bicycles or playing sports.

 

  • If there is additional time, discuss any additional questions the students may have.


Individualized Instruction/Scaffolding

English Language Learners will be supported in this lesson through data-based heterogeneous grouping, verbal and written repetition of new vocabulary words, and multiple representation of vocabulary words through printed images and video.